Skip to main content

Egypt unrest: 5 key questions

By Kyle Almond, CNN
July 3, 2013 -- Updated 2042 GMT (0442 HKT)
Members of the Muslim Brotherhood and supporters of ousted Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy clash with riot police during the swearing in ceremony of Adly Mansour as interim president in Cairo on Thursday, July 4. Egypt's military deposed Morsy, the country's first democratically elected president, the country's top general announced Wednesday. <a href='http://www.cnn.com/2013/07/04/middleeast/gallery/egypt-after-coup/index.html'>View photos of Egypt after the coup.</a> Members of the Muslim Brotherhood and supporters of ousted Egyptian President Mohamed Morsy clash with riot police during the swearing in ceremony of Adly Mansour as interim president in Cairo on Thursday, July 4. Egypt's military deposed Morsy, the country's first democratically elected president, the country's top general announced Wednesday. View photos of Egypt after the coup.
HIDE CAPTION
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Photos: Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Photos: Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
Protests in Egypt
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
>
>>
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Egypt is looking at its second power change in two years
  • Mohamed Morsy, the country's first democratically elected president, was removed from office
  • Large-scale protests began on the first anniversary of his election

(CNN) -- Two years after massive demonstrations forced out longtime leader Hosni Mubarak, Egypt finds itself right back where it started.

This time, protests have led to the removal of Mohamed Morsy, the country's first democratically elected president. Some are calling it Egypt's "second revolution."

"Think of the millions of people who cheered Morsy after his election," said Fawaz Gerges, director of the Middle East Center at the London School of Economics. "Think of the millions of Egyptians who pinned their hopes on Morsy.

"A year later, now, the millions of Egyptians who cheered for Morsy are saying he must go."

They got their wish Wednesday, when the country's military leaders confirmed that it had ousted Morsy.

How did it get to this point, and what's next for Egypt? A look at five key questions:

1. Why have so many Egyptians protested against Morsy?

Coup in Egypt: Military ousts Morsy
Morsy critic supports 'new road map'
A satellite image shows Cairo's Tahrir Square, where large groups have demonstrated and celebrated the ouster of Mohamed Morsy, Egypt's first democratically elected president. Photographers have sought vantage points far above the crowds, enabling them to show the enormity of the gatherings in the Egyptian crisis. Click through the gallery for more aerial views of the demonstrations. A satellite image shows Cairo's Tahrir Square, where large groups have demonstrated and celebrated the ouster of Mohamed Morsy, Egypt's first democratically elected president. Photographers have sought vantage points far above the crowds, enabling them to show the enormity of the gatherings in the Egyptian crisis. Click through the gallery for more aerial views of the demonstrations.
Egypt protests from above
HIDE CAPTION
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
>
>>
Photos: Egypt protests from above Photos: Egypt protests from above

Morsy, a strict Islamist aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood movement, was elected in June 2012 by appealing to all Egyptians. But his opponents say his government has been anything but inclusive since he took office, and they say it has failed to deliver on the people's aspirations for freedom and social justice.

What is the Muslim Brotherhood?

Morsy has also been accused of authoritarianism, forcing his conservative agenda through edicts and a narrow majority. He has squared off against Egypt's judiciary, the media, the police and even artists.

"The Muslim Brotherhood has not recognized that it has to take into account the 48% that didn't vote for it," CNN's Fareed Zakaria told Wolf Blitzer on Tuesday. "There are many people who feel that the constitution was rammed down the throats of a lot of Egyptians, that it contains within it many illiberal characteristics, things that are kind of the Muslim Brotherhood's Islamic agenda written into the basic framework of laws."

Egyptians are also frustrated with rampant crime and a struggling economy that hasn't shown improvement since Mubarak resigned. Unemployment remains high, food prices are rising and there are frequently electricity cuts and long fuel lines.

Large-scale protests began the weekend of June 30, on the first anniversary of Morsy's election.

2. What has been the response from the other side?

There have also been huge rallies in favor of Morsy.

His supporters -- and many outside observers -- say that by getting rid of Morsy before his term is up, Egypt is circumventing the democratic process.

"Popular protests are the sign of a robust democracy. But the change in an elected government should be at the ballot box, not through mob violence," said Ed Husain, a senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Morsy stressed his legitimacy in a speech Tuesday and said he would not step down.

"The people of Egypt gave me the mandate as president," he said. "They chose me in a free election. The people created a constitution. I have no choice but to bear responsibility for the Egyptian constitution."

Morsy even said he was ready to sacrifice his blood if that's what it took to uphold his constitutional legitimacy. But by the next day, he was out and the country's constitution had been suspended, according to Gen. Abdel-Fatah El-Sisi, the nation's top general.

Morsy supporters in at least one Cairo plaza vowed to oppose the coup, chanting "down with military rule." In statements posted on the presidential Facebook and Twitter pages, Morsy said his ouster would be "categorically rejected by all the free men of our nation."

Coup highlights Egyptian military's role
Brotherhood: This is end of democracy
iReporter Mahmoud Gamal captured this image of crowds in Cairo on Wednesday, July 3, after news came Mohamed Morsy, the former Egyptian president, had been ousted. "It was an amazing carnival," he said. iReporter Mahmoud Gamal captured this image of crowds in Cairo on Wednesday, July 3, after news came Mohamed Morsy, the former Egyptian president, had been ousted. "It was an amazing carnival," he said.
Protests in Egypt: Your experiences
HIDE CAPTION
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
>
>>
Protests in Egypt: Your experiences Protests in Egypt: Your experiences

3. What's the military's role?

When Mubarak resigned in 2011, the country's military took over leadership of the country and remained in power until Morsy's election.

It had mostly stood on the sidelines until Monday, when it said it would intervene if Morsy did not come up with a solution to "meet the demands of the people." It gave Morsy 48 hours to accommodate his opponents or be pushed aside.

"We swear by God that we are ready to sacrifice our blood for Egypt and its people against any terrorist, extremist or ignorant," generals said in a statement called "The Final Hours."

A military spokesman said the ultimatum was to push everyone toward national consensus, not seize power through a coup.

But after the deadline expired Wednesday, there were reports from some of Morsy's supporters that a coup was under way. The state-run newspaper Al-Ahram, citing an unnamed presidential source, reported that Morsy was told by 7 p.m. (1 p.m. ET) "that he is no longer a president for the republic."

4. What's the U.S. stance?

President Barack Obama spoke with Morsy this week and reiterated that the United States doesn't support a particular party or movement in Egypt, a U.S. statement said. Obama "stressed that democracy is about more than elections."

State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki denied, however, that Obama urged Morsy to hold early elections.

Senior administration officials told CNN that a military coup would trigger U.S. legislation that calls for cutting off all American aid to Egypt. Psaki confirmed there were conditions on aid, but said "that's way ahead of where we are in the process."

Zakaria said many Egyptians are suspicious of American intentions and influence.

"At some level, no matter what the United States does, it gets blamed," he wrote on the Global Public Square blog. "For decades, it was blamed for supporting the military -- it was blamed for that even a year or two ago. Now the claim is that they're too pro-President Morsy."

5. What's next for the Muslim Brotherhood and for Egypt?

Morsy's removal offers no guarantee that the protests and violence will stop. It might even get worse.

The Muslim Brotherhood still has significant support in the country, and those supporters could lash out.

Zakaria called Morsy's removal "a fairly dangerous move."

The Brotherhood was "able to survive and flourish through five or six decades of complete persecution and an outright ban on their activities," he said, "so they're not going to go anywhere.

"They will be very passionate about trying to push back on this, and that suggests the tensions in Egypt are likely to get a lot worse before they get better."

Long-term, many fear this could set a dangerous precedent. It could also create more instability, Husain said, for a country that depends on tourists and international investment for economic prosperity.

"Hopes were raised," he said, "but now the democratic dream is coming apart before our eyes. ... Is it too late to save Egypt's democracy?"

CNN's Matt Smith, Hamid Alkshali, Reza Sayah, Tom Watkins, Dan Lothian, Amir Ahmed, Ben Brumfield, Ali Younes, Chelsea Carter, Schams Elwazer, Elise Labott, Ben Wedeman, Ian Lee, Housam Ahmed and Salma Abdelaziz contributed to this report.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
Egypt
March 25, 2014 -- Updated 0026 GMT (0826 HKT)
An Egyptian court sentences at least 528 supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood to death on charges related to violent riots in the southern Egyptian city of Minya.
March 24, 2014 -- Updated 1641 GMT (0041 HKT)
Interim Egyptian President Adly Mansour sends letter to the family of jailed Al Jazeera journalist Mohamed Fahmy.
March 9, 2014 -- Updated 1630 GMT (0030 HKT)
CNN's Sara Sidner talks about stepping in for Al Jazeera reporters since they have been barred from working in Egypt.
March 15, 2014 -- Updated 1134 GMT (1934 HKT)
How are the Arab Spring nations faring? What successes can they boast -- on democracy, economic progress, stability and women's rights -- and what challenges await?
March 4, 2014 -- Updated 2357 GMT (0757 HKT)
A Cairo court has banned all activities by Hamas in Egypt, calling the Palestinian movement that runs Gaza a terrorist organization.
February 22, 2014 -- Updated 2114 GMT (0514 HKT)
Lawyers representing Muslim Brotherhood members in a jailbreak case call for the judges to be changed.
February 20, 2014 -- Updated 1005 GMT (1805 HKT)
Three Al Jazeera journalists face terrorism charges after being arrested in December. CNN's Sara Sidner reports.
February 9, 2014 -- Updated 1752 GMT (0152 HKT)
CNN's Christiane Amanpour son the Egyptian government's actions towards journalists.
February 18, 2014 -- Updated 0409 GMT (1209 HKT)
At least four people died and 14 were wounded by a blast on a tourist bus in the resort town of Taba, authorities say.
February 16, 2014 -- Updated 1610 GMT (0010 HKT)
Mohamed Morsy taunts officials who placed him in a soundproof glass box during his trial on conspiracy charges.
February 11, 2014 -- Updated 1301 GMT (2101 HKT)
An Oscar-nominated film portrays a revolution squeezed into its margins,but that's where it started, writes H.A. Hellyer.
January 22, 2014 -- Updated 0818 GMT (1618 HKT)
"Democracy" is meaningless unless the right people are entrusted with implementing it, says Aalam Wassef.
February 6, 2014 -- Updated 2130 GMT (0530 HKT)
Egypt's military quashes a newspaper report that quoted Abdel-Fatah El-Sisi as saying he would run for president.
January 26, 2014 -- Updated 0802 GMT (1602 HKT)
Muslim Brotherhood supporters (background) clash with supporters of the Egyptian government in Cairo on January 25, 2014.
At least 49 people died in violence on the third anniversary of the January 25 revolution, state media says.
January 18, 2014 -- Updated 2204 GMT (0604 HKT)
Voters have overwhelmingly approved a new constitution, a spokesman for Egypt's electoral commission says.
January 15, 2014 -- Updated 0108 GMT (0908 HKT)
Egyptians vote for the first time since the military ousted Morsy. CNN's Ian Lee reports.
January 15, 2014 -- Updated 0111 GMT (0911 HKT)
A study suggests Egyptians are far more likely to support military rule than people in many other Mideast countries.
January 14, 2014 -- Updated 2054 GMT (0454 HKT)
CNN's Becky Anderson speaks to Amre Moussa about what went into the creation of Egypt's constitutional draft.
January 14, 2014 -- Updated 1812 GMT (0212 HKT)
Egyptians have high hopes that the referendum will put an end to the bloodshed, but will Egypt be back where it was at the start of the revolution?
January 13, 2014 -- Updated 1557 GMT (2357 HKT)
International correspondents demand Egypt release three journalists they say have been detained arbitrarily for two weeks.
ADVERTISEMENT